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HEALTH

blood cancer Leukemia

blood cancerLeukemia


Leukemia is a type of cancer that forms in the tissues responsible for the production of blood cells, which includes the bone marrow and lymphatic system.
Leukemia is a type of cancer that forms in the tissues responsible for the production of blood cells, which includes the bone marrow and lymphatic system.

This type of cancer usually begins in the formation of white blood cells, where white blood cells have the ability to repel and fight infections and various infections.

Generally, these cells grow very healthy and divide according to the needs of the body. However, in the case of leukemia, the bone marrow in the body produces a very large number of abnormal white blood cells, which cannot function properly.

Leukemia is not a common disease in children only. Leukemia has four main types and a wide variety of secondary types, part of which is only common in children.

Diagnosing a person with leukemia may cause severe anxiety and fear, while the task of treating leukemia may be complex and complex, according to the type of leukemia and according to many different factors.

On the other hand, there are many different methods and resources that can help the patient encounter leukemia.

Leukemia symptoms


Symptoms of leukemia vary and vary, depending on the type of leukemia.

However, common symptoms of leukemia include:

  • Fever or shivering
  • Permanent fatigue, weakness
  • Repeated infection
  • Loss of appetite or weight loss
  • Lymphatic nodules, enlarged liver or spleen
  • Easy bleeding or bruising
  • Shortness of breath during physical activity or when climbing grades
  • Small red spots / spots appear on the skin (local, localized bleeding)
  • Hyperhidrosis, especially at night
  • Bones pain or sensitivity


The severity of the symptoms depends on the amount of abnormal (abnormal) blood cells and the location of their accumulation. One may overlook the first signs and symptoms of leukemia (because they are similar to the signs and symptoms of influenza (influenza) or other common diseases).

Causes and risk factors for leukemia

Doctors typically classify leukemia in two ways:

1- According to the pace of progress:

The first classification depends on the frequency of disease progression.

Acute / serious leukemia: abnormal blood cells are primitive, leukemia cells. These cells are unable to function, and they tend to divide at a rapid pace, so the disease rapidly exacerbates. Acute leukemia requires strong and strict treatment, which must be started immediately.

Chronic leukemia: This type of leukemia arises in adult blood cells, which divide, multiply, or accumulate more slowly and have a regular ability to function, over a certain period of time.
In some classes of chronic leukemia, certain symptoms do not appear and the disease can remain hidden and undiagnosed for a few years.

2- According to the type of infected cells:

The second classification depends on the type of infected blood cells.

Lymphocytic leukemia: This type of leukemia attacks the lymphocytes, which are responsible for the production of lymph tissue. This tissue forms the central compound in the immune system and is found in many body systems, which include the organs / lymph nodes, spleen and tonsils.
Myeloid leukemia: This type attacks the myeloid cells in the spinal cord. These cells include those that are supposed to develop in the future into red blood cells, white blood cells and the cells responsible for producing platelets.

Main types:


The main types of leukemia are:

Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML) is the most common form of leukemia. The disease appears in children and in adults, and is also called acute non-lymphocytic leukemia.
Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (or Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia –ALL) - This is the most common type in young children and is responsible for 75% of cases of leukemia in children.

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia - CLL - Although this type is very common and appears in adults, mainly, the person can enjoy a good feeling for several years without the need for any treatment. It is almost not seen in children.
Chronic Myelocytic Leukemia (CML) - This type of leukemia is mainly present in adults. Its appearance is attributed to a defect in the chromosome called the Philadelphia chromosome, which is responsible for causing a genetic mutation in the BCR ABL gene.
This gene produces an improper protein called tyrosine kinase, which scientists and doctors believe is the one that enables cancer cells to grow and multiply.

People with this type of leukemia may experience few symptoms, over a period that may take months or even years, before the start of the stage in which the cells of the disease grow and multiply very quickly.

Other chronic defects in lymphocytes:


As in CML, this group of diseases causes the appearance of chronic leukemia, by producing excessive or scarce lymphocytes.

These chronic defects in lymphocytes include:

  • Myelodysplastic syndrome
  • Myeloproliferative disorder
  • Primary polycythemia (Polycythemia vera)
  • Myelofibrosis (Myelofibrosis).

This group of medical conditions can eventually lead to leukemia in the spinal cord.

Other rare types of leukemia include hairy cells leukemia and Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia.

The causes are unclear:


Scientists do not yet know what the true causes of leukemia are (leukemia). However, it appears to be generated and developed as a result of the combination of several different genetic and environmental factors.

Acute leukemia begins in one white blood cell or in a small group of cells that have lost their Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequence or that this sequence is defective.
These cells remain undeveloped, but they are able to reproduce. Because they are not sufficiently developed, and not dead as they do for healthy cells, they accumulate and disrupt the proper functioning of vital organs. Ultimately, these cells abort the production of healthy and healthy cells.

Chronic leukemia affects the most sophisticated blood cells. These cells multiply and accumulate more slowly, so disease progression is slower, too, but it can be fatal. The specialists are still not fully aware of the real reasons for this process.
In sum, healthy and healthy blood cells deficiency arise, resulting in pollution, excessive bleeding and anemia.

Also, the presence of a very large number of white blood cells would compromise the function of bone marrow tissue (penetration) and penetration into other organs. And when such a situation leads to death, it is usually the result of severe blood loss or infection.

Risk factors


The following factors may increase your risk of developing some types of leukemia:

Cancer treatment - People who have previously been subjected to certain types of chemotherapy or radiotherapy to treat other types of cancer are at risk of developing certain types of leukemia, after many years of treatment.

Genetics - It appears that certain genetic deviations may affect the onset of leukemia. It has been discovered that certain genetic diseases, such as Down syndrome, increase the risk of leukemia.

Exposure to radiation or to certain chemicals - people who have been exposed to very high levels of radiation, such as survivors of an atomic explosion or an atomic reactor accident, are at high risk of leukemia.

Also, exposure to certain types of chemicals, such as gasoline found in unleaded fuel and in tobacco smoke and also used in certain chemical industries, also increases the likelihood of developing certain types of leukemia.

In any case, the majority of people exposed to these risk factors or belonging to a certain risk group for leukemia do not have it, and a large portion of people with leukemia were not among those exposed to these risk factors.

Diagnosing leukemia


In most cases, doctors diagnose leukemia during a regular blood test, before any symptoms appear.

If this is the case, or if the person has symptoms that may indicate leukemia, he or she may undergo one or more of the following checks:

  • Physical examination
  • Blood tests
  • Immunophenotype
  • Cytogenic examination
  • Bone marrow biopsy.


Several other tests may be required to confirm the diagnosis and to determine the type of leukemia and the degree of its spread in the body.

Some types of leukemia are classified into levels, indicating the severity and severity of the body. Defining the disease classification and its classification helps the attending physician establish the optimal and most effective leukemia treatment program.

Leukemia treatment


Unlike other cancers, leukemia does not consist of a solid tissue mass that the doctor can eradicate and dispose of with surgery. Therefore, the treatment of leukemia is very complex.

The degree of complexity is related to basic factors: age, health status, type of leukemia, and whether it has spread to other parts of the body.

As for the methods of treating leukemia used to fight leukemia, they include:
  • Chemotherapy
  • Kinase Inhibitors
  • Radiotherapy
  • Bone Marrow Transplantation
  • Stem Cells Transplantation.
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