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Cancer

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Cancer is a medical term that includes a wide range of diseases that are characterized by the abnormal growth of cells that divide without control and have the ability to penetrate tissues and destroy healthy tissues in the body, and is able to spread throughout the body.

Cancer is one of the leading causes of death in the western world, but the odds of curing cancer are constantly improving in most types, thanks to advances in early detection methods and cancer treatment options.

Cancer symptoms


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Cancer symptoms vary from case to case, depending on the member with the cancer.

Some broad indications of malignant growth are credited to him, however they are not explicit to disease alone. They include:


  • fatigue
  • High temperature
  • The appearance of mass or swelling that can be felt under the skin
  • Pain
  • Changes in body weight, including unintended rise or fall in body weight
  • Changes to the surface of the skin, such as the appearance of yellow color, dark areas or red spots on the skin, wounds that do not heal, or changes in moles that were present on the skin
  • Changes in bowel or bladder operating patterns
  • Persistent cough
  • Hoarseness
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Difficulty in indigestion or feeling uncomfortable after eating


Causes and risk factors for cancer

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Cancer is caused by a damage (change / mutation) that occurs in a series of deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) found in cells.
The DNA chain in the human body contains a set of instructions for the cells of the body, which determine how to grow, develop and divide.

Sound cells in some cases will in general reason changes in their DNA, yet they stay ready to address the greater part of these changes. Or on the other hand, on the off chance that you can't make these adjustments, the slanted cells will frequently pass on.

However, some of these deviations are not correctable, which leads to the growth of these cells and their transformation into cancerous cells. These deviations can also extend the life of some cells beyond their normal life expectancy. This phenomenon causes the accumulation of cancer cells.

How does a person get cancer?


In some types of cancer, the accumulation of these cells generates a cancerous tumor. However, not all cancers produce cancerous tumors. For example, leukemia (leukemia - leukemia) is a type of cancer that affects blood cells, bone marrow (bone marrow), lymphatic system and spleen, but this type of cancer does not produce a tumor.

Initial genetic deviation is only the beginning of the cancer development process. Researchers believe that the development of cancer requires a number of changes within the cell, including:

An initiating factor that leads to a genetic change: Sometimes a person may be born with a specific genetic deviation, while genetic deviation may occur in others as a result of powerful powers inside the body, for example, hormones, infections and incessant diseases.
Genetic deviation can also occur as a result of effective forces outside the body, such as ultraviolet radiation (UV) from the sun's rays, or carcinogens from chemicals (carcinogen-causing) chemicals present in the life environment.

A catalyst for rapid cell growth: cofactors exploit deviations and genetic changes caused by the initiating factors.

The catalysts make cells divide more quickly. This can lead to the accumulation of cells, a cancerous tumor. Auxiliary factors can be transmitted by heredity, they can form inside the body or they can reach from outside and enter the body.

Empowering factor that makes malignancy increasingly forceful and causes it spread: Without the empowering factors (support factors), the destructive tumor can stay amiable and constrained set up. Empowering factors make malignancy progressively forceful and improve the probability of disease breaking into and pulverizing close by tissues, just as improving the probability of malignant growth spreading to different pieces of the body.
As is the case with initiating factors and catalysts, the encouraging factors may also be transmitted by heredity, or they may be formed as a result of the effects of environmental factors.
Hereditary structure, the powers acting inside the body, the decision of way of life and nature where we live - all of which can shape the reason for disease arrangement or to finish its development on the off chance that it has begun. For instance, on the off chance that somebody hereditarily transmits a hereditary deviation that builds the danger of a particular malignancy, that individual will have a higher danger of building up this sort of disease, more than individuals presented to a similar factor that can cause malignant growth.

 Genetic deviation leads to the initiation of the development of the cancerous process, while the carcinogenic factor may be a major component in the future development and progression of cancer.

Moreover, smokers who work in an asbestos-containing environment are more at risk of developing lung cancer than smokers who do not work in such an environment.This is on the grounds that tobacco smoke, alongside asbestos, is a factor in the advancement of this sort of disease.

Although doctors know the factors that make someone belong to a group with a greater risk of developing cancer, the majority of cancer cases actually occur in people who do not have known factors


Risk factors


Factors known to increase the risk of cancer include:

Age: the development of cancer can take several decades. This is why most people are diagnosed with cancer after they are over 55. Until the moment the tumor is discovered, it is likely that between 100 million - a billion cancer cells have evolved and it is possible that the primary tumor began to develop five years ago, and possibly more.
Habits: It is known that certain lifestyles may increase the risk of developing cancer.
Smoking
Drinking alcohol
Exposure to the sun in abundance: or the occurrence of multiple sunburns accompanied by the appearance of blisters (blister - bubble filled with fluid that appears in the upper layers of the skin - Blister)
Having unprotected sex
Family ancestry: Only about 10% of all diseases happen on a hereditary premise. In the event that malignant growth is regular in the family, all things considered, these hereditary deviations from heredity will go starting with one age then onto the next.

The doctor decides if a particular person is suitable for scanning tests that may reveal the presence of genetic genetic deviations that increase the risk of developing cancer. A person must realize that if he detects hereditary aberrations, this does not mean that he will necessarily develop cancer.

General health status: Some chronic diseases, such as Ulcerative colitis, can greatly increase the risk of certain types of cancer. Talk to your doctor about it.
Living environment: The environment in which we live may contain harmful chemicals that can increase the risk of developing cancer. Even if you are a non-smoker, you may be at risk of passive (second-hand) smoking if you live in an environment where others smoke, or if you live in the company of a smoker.
Chemicals at home or in the workplace, such as petrol, can be a factor in increasing your risk of cancer.


Cancer complications


Cancer and cancer treatment may lead to the emergence of several complications, including:

  • Side effects from cancer treatment
  • Unusual responses from the immune system to cancer
  • Cancer outbreaks
  • Cancer has been set back (relapse).




    Cancer diagnosis

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    Diagnosing early-stage cancer provides the best chances for recovery. If the patient feels suspicious symptoms, he should consult with his doctor about any of the checks and scans that are appropriate for early detection of cancer.

    Research has indicated that pre-malignancy screening may really spare lives in certain kinds of disease. Concerning different kinds of malignant growth, pre-disease screening is just made for individuals who are bound to create disease. Discuss with your doctor the presence of risk factors for you.

    The American Cancer Society recommends early screening for cancer for people with moderate risk factors for the following types of cancer:

    Breast cancer: for women aged 40 years and over
    Cervical malignant growth: for ladies 21 years old and more established, or three years after first sex 
    Colon malignant growth (internal organ): For people matured 50 years and over
    Prostate cancer: for men from age 50 and up
    Cancer screening for early detection and some other procedures have a set of benefits and shortcomings.Talk about the advantages and deficiencies of every assessment with your primary care physician to decide the most fitting screening for malignancy. 

    So as to analyze malignant growth, your primary care physician may pick at least one of the accompanying early disease screening tests: 


    • Physical assessment 
    • Lab tests 
    • Imaging check
    • Biopsy. 


    Malignancy grades/stages


    After diagnosing cancer, the doctor tries to determine the extent of the cancer or the stage the cancer has reached.

    The doctor decides on the treatment methods or the chances of recovery, according to the classification of cancer and its degree in the specific patient.

    Classification and grade are determined by performing a range of exams, such as imaging exams, including bone scanning and X-ray imaging (X-Ray radiation), to determine whether the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.

    Cancer grades/stages are generally coded in Roman numerals I to IV, as a bigger number shows that the disease is further developed. In some cases, the stage of the cancer is indicated by letters or verbal description.

    Cancer treatment


     Cancer treatment consists of a variety of treatments. Likewise, malignant growth treatment choices identify with a few components, for example, the sort and phase of disease, the general wellbeing status, notwithstanding the inclinations of the patient himself.

    Oncologist can be consulted about the benefits and risks of each of the cancer treatment options to determine the best and most effective cancer treatment for each case.


    Cancer prevention


    There is no sure way to avoid getting cancer. But doctors have succeeded in identifying some ways that can help reduce risk factors for developing cancer, including:


    • Quit Smoking
    • Avoid excessive sunlight
    • Maintaining a balanced and healthy diet
    • Doing physical activities on most days of the week
    • Maintain a normal and healthy weight
    • Ensure that early detection checks are done regularly
    • Consult your doctor about available vaccines.



    Alternative cancer treatments


    It has not been conclusively proven that alternative treatments lead to cancer cure. But alternative medicine possibilities may help counteract the effects and reduce the symptoms of cancer and the side effects of its treatments, such as fatigue, nausea and pain.

    Discuss with your doctor about alternative treatments that can help. The doctor will also discuss with you the safety of these treatments for you and whether they are a factor hindering the traditional treatment of cancer. These treatments include:


    • Acupuncture
    • Hypnosis
    • Massage
    • Meditation
    • Various relaxation techniques.


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